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Diabetes: scientists discover new therapeutic options to limit collateral damage caused by insulin

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A protein that can act as a regulator of blood sugar and lipids under certain conditions has been identified by a group of researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE). The protein, called S100A9, could counteract the side effects of insulin administered to diabetics.

The study published in Nature Communications mentions what a new treatment for diabetes and in general a significant improvement in the quality of life of tens of millions of people could be. In fact, millions of people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have to resort to insulin injections. Overdose can cause hypoglycemia, a drop in blood glucose levels, while underdose can lead to dangerous hyperglycemia.

In experiments on mice, scientists found that the administration of S100A9 to insulin-deficient diabetic rats led to better glucose management and better control of ketones and lipids. They then discovered that this protein appears to work only when there is TLR4, a receptor placed on the membrane of certain cells, including adipocytes and immune system cells.

Now Roberto Coppari, one of the authors of the study together with Giorgio Ramadori, and his team want to understand the function of the protein S100A9. In this context, they are developing a new treatment that combines low doses of insulin and S100A9 to understand whether it is possible to better control glucose and ketones and limit the same negative side effect of insulin.

“We also want to decipher the exact role of TLR4 to offer a therapeutic strategy that achieves the delicate balance between blood sugar, ketones and optimal lipid control,” explains Coppari himself in the press release.

LINKS AND SOURCES

https://www.unige.ch/communication/communiques/en/2019/diabete-des-traitements-de-nouvelle-generation-bientot-disponibles/

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-11498-x

IMAGE CREDIT

https://www.franciscanhealth.org/sites/default/files/2015/10/20/hero-diabetes-managemetn-tools-and-veggies.jpg

Bob Miller

Bob was Professor of Behavioural Neuroscience at the University of Denver from 2011-2018 and now works as a practicing psychiatrist. As a passionate scientist, he founded the website www.healthmongers.org in early 2019 with the goal of delivering accurate and useful scientific reporting, and has since built it up as a valuable publication. While his field is in psychology, Bob also has a strong general understanding of many other fields in health, astronomy and applied science, and is able to write in a way that is easily understandable to the layman.

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Health and Medicine

Children of mothers who have taken snus during pregnancy show higher blood pressure.

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A research team found that children between the ages of five and six whose mothers had used snus during pregnancy had higher systolic blood pressure. The new study was published in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

Snus is a moist powdered tobacco for oral use that was banned in the European Union as early as 1992 after World Health Organization studies found it to be carcinogenic. However, this tobacco is very popular in some countries, such as Sweden, and is still available in the United States (although it is currently processed by the FDA in that country).

The snus is placed between the gums and the upper lip and essentially provides nicotine. The advantage of using such tobacco would be that it does not include the by-products of burning classic cigarettes. Another advantage is that it is not necessary to spit, as is the case with most common chewing tobacco cards.

This study shows that the intake of nicotine during pregnancy, whether from cigarettes, chewing tobacco or snus, is not safe and can have negative effects on the unborn child, as Felicia Nordenstam, a paediatric cardiologist at the Karolinska Institute University Hospital in Stockholm and lead author of the study, explains.

The researcher analyzed data from children born to 21 women who used only snus during pregnancy and compared it with data from 19 children whose mothers did not consume tobacco products during pregnancy.

Researchers found that systolic blood pressure in children in the first group was 4.2 mmHg higher than in children in the second group.

LINKS AND SOURCES

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-10-children-higher-blood-pressure-age.html

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.119.012629

IMAGE CREDIT

https://images.newscientist.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/14161245/e2d3ay.jpg

Bob Miller

Bob was Professor of Behavioural Neuroscience at the University of Denver from 2011-2018 and now works as a practicing psychiatrist. As a passionate scientist, he founded the website www.healthmongers.org in early 2019 with the goal of delivering accurate and useful scientific reporting, and has since built it up as a valuable publication. While his field is in psychology, Bob also has a strong general understanding of many other fields in health, astronomy and applied science, and is able to write in a way that is easily understandable to the layman.

2930 Scheuvront Drive, Denver Colorado, 80211
303-458-7258
[email protected]
Bob Miller
Continue Reading

Health and Medicine

Pregnant with twins? Here are the weight gains recommended by a researcher

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A new study conducted by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh sets new guidelines for weight gain in pregnant women who expect twins. Unlike non-partners, the guidelines for twin pregnancies are not always as precise, which is why the doctors at the Graduate School of Public Health have decided to remedy the situation.

The researchers who published their study on Obstetrics & Gynecology analyzed statistical data on 27,723 pregnancies and twin births (with two children) between 2003 and 2013. This data was then compared with those of the mother, in particular with height and weight both before pregnancy and at birth.

They then worked out three upper and lower recommended weight gain limits for three types of pregnant twin women: Underweight or normal, overweight or obesity.

According to the results presented in the press release of the study, there was an increased risk of poor birth results if the weight gain was:

  • Less than 31 pounds or more than 60 pounds in underweight and normal-weight women;
  • Less than 24 pounds or more than 62 pounds in overweight women;
  • Less than 14 pounds or more than 57 pounds for obese women.

“We are not saying that an increase within these weight ranges is necessarily better for the health of the mother and her children, but simply that an increase above or below them poses a greater risk of poor health. Women should talk to their doctors to determine safe weight gain for them,” says Lisa Bodnar, lead author of the study and professor at the University of Pittsburgh.

LINKS AND SOURCES

https://www.chp.edu/news/101019-bodnar-twins-maternal-weight

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006250-900000000-97570

IMAGE CREDIT

https://www.twins.org.au/twins-research/Blog/twinsartim-D_children_female_MZ_with_pregnat_mum.jpg

Bob Miller

Bob was Professor of Behavioural Neuroscience at the University of Denver from 2011-2018 and now works as a practicing psychiatrist. As a passionate scientist, he founded the website www.healthmongers.org in early 2019 with the goal of delivering accurate and useful scientific reporting, and has since built it up as a valuable publication. While his field is in psychology, Bob also has a strong general understanding of many other fields in health, astronomy and applied science, and is able to write in a way that is easily understandable to the layman.

2930 Scheuvront Drive, Denver Colorado, 80211
303-458-7258
[email protected]
Bob Miller
Continue Reading

Health and Medicine

Longer hormone therapy associated with better cognitive status in women

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Increasingly, the reduction of estrogen levels during the transition to menopause is highlighted in terms of overall brain health, especially cognitive function, and cognitive decline. In order to counteract this reduction, so-called “hormone therapy” is increasingly used. A new study published during the menopause points to a longer time window for the use of hormone therapy.

Among other things, it is suspected that estrogens can play a role in increasing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in women, considering, for example, that two-thirds of the 5.5 million cases of Alzheimer’s disease in the USA are caused by women. Previous studies have also highlighted the role of estrogen in learning and memory.

In this new study, researchers analyzed data from 2000 postmenopausal women followed for 12 years. The results showed, according to the press release presenting the study, that increased estrogen exposure could be associated with a better cognitive status in adult women. In addition, researchers found that women who started hormone therapy earlier had higher cognitive status in cognitive tests than women who started hormone therapy later.

Stephanie Faubion, Medical Director of the North American Menopause Society (NAMS), comments on these findings in the press release: “Although the risk-benefit assessment of the use of hormone therapies is complicated and needs to be adjusted, this study provides further evidence of the positive cognitive effects of hormone therapy, especially when initiated immediately after menopause. This study also highlights the potential effect of early estrogen deficiency on cognitive health associated with premature or early menopause without adequate estrogen replacement.”

LINKS AND SOURCES

https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/press-release/estrogen-exposure-and-cognition-10-16-19.pdf

IMAGE CREDIT

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/content/images/articles/317/317387/hormone-therapy-written-in-book-with-hormones-and-stethoscope.jpg

Bob Miller

Bob was Professor of Behavioural Neuroscience at the University of Denver from 2011-2018 and now works as a practicing psychiatrist. As a passionate scientist, he founded the website www.healthmongers.org in early 2019 with the goal of delivering accurate and useful scientific reporting, and has since built it up as a valuable publication. While his field is in psychology, Bob also has a strong general understanding of many other fields in health, astronomy and applied science, and is able to write in a way that is easily understandable to the layman.

2930 Scheuvront Drive, Denver Colorado, 80211
303-458-7258
[email protected]
Bob Miller
Continue Reading

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